Get Oxytocin Research Peptide Online – The Ultimate Guide to Oxytocin
It is widely known that oxytocin plays a facilitatory role in preovulatory luteinizing hormone in rats. There is sufficient scientific evidence to prove that it plays other functions apart from facilitating the conversion of luteinizing hormone to estrogen. The oxytocin hormone is produced by the hypothalamus in the brain and mainly acts as a neurotransmitter in accentuating a wide array of functions. Variations in maternal behavior among rats are associated with estrogen oxytocin interactions which occur at the medial preoptic area. It is vital to know that the oxytocin hormone is produced in large quantities during lactation. The oxytocin macromolecule is a hormone made up of nine amino acids and is coded by OXT gene. Its primary function is to act as a neuromodulator and it is important in accentuating various biological systems by producing net positive effects in a biological system. The oxytocin polypeptide has the molecular formula C43H66N12O12S2 and a molecular mass of 1.0072-kilo Daltons.
An Insight into Oxytocin
According to a recent study conducted on animal test subjects, the oxytocin hormone is produced in the hypothalamus and then transported to the target organ depending on the organism or functions. The hypothalamus is an important part of a biological system because it links the brain with the central nervous system. The hypothalamus plays a wide role in a biological system by mediating different functions such as sexual organ regulation, pain relief and metabolism. The peptide itself is processed as a non-active precursor from OXT gene in transcription system. This protein is particular to neurophysin 1 and it has been determined that oxytocin is a carrier protein. In addition, it is progressively hydrolyzed into tiny pieces by a series of enzymes. The last hydrolysis is essential in expressing active oxytocin polypeptide and it is catalyzed by peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase. It has been noted that the oxytocin molecule is important in creating magnocellular neurosecretory cells of paraventricular nuclei and supra optic nuclei.
Research showed that once the oxytocin polypeptide is produced, it is then stored in herring bodies located at the posterior pituitary axon terminals. Expression occurs after the signal is sent from the brain to the central nervous system to convey the hormone to target cells. The axons that express the oxytocin peptide have collaterals that innervate oxytocin receptors within the nucleus acumbens and this is the region of the basal forebrain and hypothalamus preoptic area which is vital in regulating behavior such as fear, aggression and reinforcement, among others.
There is a theory that the peripheral hormone and behavior affects various body systems through these axons. In addition, oxytocin receptors are expressed by neurons in different parts of the body – from the brain stem, septum, amygdala, spinal cord to ventromedial hypothalamus. Scientific research studies on animal subjects showed that large dense core vesicles are tied to neurophysin 1. It indicates that actual secretion of oxytocin molecule from neurosecretory nerve endings that control activity oxytocin within cells in the hypothalamus. The cells are crucial in facilitating a wide array of functions by creating action potential that will induce the transfer of electrical impulse from one end of the axon to the other. Nerve endings play an essential role in increasing the amount of oxytocin in a biological system which is released via exocytosis.
Oxytocin and Reproduction
The oxytocin polypeptide is effective in inducing production of growth hormones in a biological system. The oxytocin macromolecule plays a pivotal role in lactation and parturition in many species. It acts centrally to influence mating and maternal behaviors in rodents. Moreover, a subsequent research showed that the oxytocin polypeptide is effective in stimulating reproductive behavior by increasing the production of gonadotrophin releasing hormone from medial basal explants and cycling in female mice. Oxytocin is a neurohypophyseal macromolecule. This means that this polypeptide cannot re-enter the brain once it is expressed. In this context, the effects of the oxytocin macromolecule could have behavioral effects on the test subject. One of the behaviors associated with the oxytocin polypeptide is sexual arousal. Research showed that the injection of oxytocin polypeptide into the cerebrospinal fluid in male mice resulted in spontaneous erections. On the other hand, administration of the oxytocin molecule into female mice boosted lordosis behavior and increased sexual activity.
In essence, another behavior that is associated with the presence of the oxytocin polypeptide is attachment or bonding. Scientific studies showed that the oxytocin hormone is essential in boosting interaction between males and females. the oxytocin peptide is known to boost maternal behavior in virginal female test subjects. Sexual maturation occurs when oxytocin is administered to female test subjects by increasing production of gonadotrophin-releasing hormones. This activation is caused by eliciting reactions to neuronal and astroglial factors that produce cells connected to gonadotrophin releasing hormone neurons. The neuronal networks involved in transsynaptic regulation of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone consists of neurons that utilize inhibitory and excitatory amino acids in the transmission of information to kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling system. However, research showed that neuronal systems can either stimulate or inhibit gonadotrophin-releasing hormones secretion. Recent research showed that the oxytocin hormone stimulates gonadotrophin-releasing hormones secretion in pre-pubertal mice.
When the oxytocin molecule antagonist is administered, it deactivates preovulatory luteinizing hormone peaking in female test subjects. When studying in vivo, there is a chance of delaying effects of the oxytocin antagonist and this can be used to explain paradigm of oxytocin secretion in a biological system, especially when conducting research to determine if the prostaglandin E 2 (PGE2) peptide is effective in facilitating effects of oxytocin in a pulsatile gonadotrophin hormones secretion. The effectiveness of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormones from hypothalamus depends on the intensity of the PGE2 polypeptide in a biological system. There is sufficient scientific evidence to conclude that the oxytocin molecule is important in facilitating sexual maturation in female mice. In the study, it is vital to note that accelerated production of gonadotrophin-releasing hormones is vital in different pre-pubertal ages and sexual differentiation depends on the amount of oxytocin molecules produced.
Oxytocin and Puberty
The endogenous oxytocin macromolecule is physiologically involved in controlling female puberty and sexual maturity. The oxytocin peptide is vital in promoting female sexual characteristics and development of sexual organs. It is imperative to note that according to research mice, the oxytocin antagonist did not affect the production of gonadotrophin-releasing hormones. Oxytocin receptors work in conjunction with another molecule to help the release of different molecules from a biological system. There is a possibility that the effects of oxytocin from maternal origin dissipate immediately after birth. However, it is important to understand the efficacy of different molecules in accentuating theproduction of hormones in a biological system. Previous studies have concluded that a significant amount of mature oxytocin is detected in the hypothalamus of the brain after 14 days of postnatal life. This concludes the hypothesis that absence of oxytocin antagonist in the system does not affect vaginal opening. According to research, stimulatory effect of the oxytocin hormone on gonadotrophin-releasing hormones decreases with age.
A reduction in oxytocin hormone release is related to an increased oxytocin clearance or reduced activity of oxytocin receptors in a biological system. There is no specific study that reported ontogeny of oxytocin expression in the hypothalamus of test subjects. However, oxytocin messenger RNA levels increase after puberty, especially after steroidal stimulation. Regulation of oxytocin receptors is a complex process that requires external activation. Administration of exogenous oxytocin hormones has shown to be effective in inducing maternal behaviors in female research mice. Autoradiography experiments indicated the presence of OTRs in ventromedial hypothalamus of the rat at puberty and this occurs after stimulation of estrogen. Age-related decrease in oxytocin could be related to receptor failure or production of oxytocin polypeptide in low amounts. Changes in receptor affinity for the oxytocin polypeptide in animal test subject caused a reduction in gonadotrophin hormone production.
Oxytocin and Preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone
Based on its role in puberty, the oxytocin hormone is seen to be effective in increasing preovulatory luteinizing hormones. Using research explants obtained from different research on mice, it has been identified that the oxytocin molecule stimulates secretion of gonadotrophin hormones especially later in proestrus period. During the study, oxytocin or its antagonist did not cause any significant effect on pulsatile gonadotrophin hormone release. Data obtained from research showed that vasopressin is the sole antagonist of oxytocin hormone in a biological system. Administering the oxytocin polypeptide during menstrual cycle increased the production of the endogenous luteinizing hormone. A major finding from this study was that the luteinizing hormone increased rapidly with the administration of oxytocin. The main hypothalamic neuromodulator involved in activation of various molecules in a biological system have been classified.
Research shows that inhibitory amino acids such as glutamate and excitatory amino acids such as gamma-aminobutyric acid affected levels of oxytocin in the system. It is imperative to note that results from the study indicated that oxytocin-mediated pathway is vital in regulating the pubertal process. Blockage of endogenous oxytocin causes reduced or delayed expression of sexual characteristics in male and female mice. The age at which antagonist blocks activity of oxytocin in two-month-old mice clearly shows that oxytocin polypeptide controls pubertal process. The nature of events occurring in a biological process features hardwired events that take place during young mice growth and development. The nature of events that occurs during growth and development of mice especially sexual characteristics can be associated with the presence of oxytocin polypeptide in the biological system. Moreover, for oxytocin to cause any significant effect in a biological system it is imperative to know that it causes morphological changes to glial cells and neurons.
Oxytocin for Research
Oxytocin polypeptide is effective in enhancing production of gonadotrophin hormones. Studies have indicated that oxytocin polypeptide is effective in causing neuronal remodeling and permanent sex-related changes in glial morphology. These effects are mediated by prostaglandin E 2 receptors and a study suggests convergence regulatory mechanism. Oxytocin molecule has stimulatory effects of PGE2 release from astrocytes in primary culture and it is imperative to understand that production of this macromolecule is effective in causing sexual related characteristics. Introducing vasopressin, which is oxytocin antagonist in the system lead to the crossing of the blood brain barrier. Research shows that oxytocin antagonists are known to induce behavioral changes when they are administered peripherally. However, it is important o understand that the rate of blood-brain barrier crossing determines the intensity of vasopressin effects. Research conducted on mice showed that there was a reduction in secretion of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and this is in tandem with the peripheral administration of oxytocin peptide.
Oxytocin and its receptors are expressed in research mice and local production plays an important role in the regulation of ovarian functions during the estrous cycle. It is imperative to note that oxytocin neurons are situated on the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. Research showed that oxytocin polypeptide does not stimulate the release of gonadotrophin releasing hormone directly from its neurons. However, its activities are mediated by PGE2 that is released by astrocytes. These findings showed that PGE2 is a potent gonadotrophin releasing hormone secretagogue and when stimulated it binds to specific gonadotrophin neurons to stimulate gonadotrophin hormone release. A recent study conducted on double label immunofluorescence technique showed that expression of oxytocin receptors in some female mice. This indicated that activity of oxytocin polypeptide could be direct to cells. In situ hybridization of oxytocin, research might not produce sufficient results to detect low-level transcripts in tiny neurons.
Cytosolic PLA2 is an enzyme that is essential in prostaglandin production and it works by generating arachidonic acid a precursor of prostaglandins. Blocking activity of PLA2 prevented activity of oxytocin on gonadotrophin releasing pulses. There is evidence to indicate that presence of oxytocin receptors is essential in accentuating release of PGE2 on the target organ. Oxytocin is effective after 16 hours of administration and its expression in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei is enhanced with an increase in cyclooxygenase enzyme. Although stimulatory effects of prostaglandin E2 on gonadotrophin hormone is prominent in median eminence, oxytocin accentuates production of gonadotrophin hormone. Spontaneous mutation of the oxytocin gene causes a reduction in the release of gonadotrophin hormone. Genetic knock out is a new field in peptide science. However, oxytocin deficiency has not been reported in most species. Peptides supplied in the market are for research purposes only human consumption is not allowed.